kubernetes学习笔记-nginx ingress实现服务暴露(一)

目录

1.ingress介绍

ingress是一种通过http协议对外暴漏kubernetes内部服务的api对象,有以下功能:

  • 负载均衡,将请求自动负载到pod上
  • ssl加密,客户端到ingress controller为https加密
  • 基于名称的虚拟主机,支持url和域名的路由方式

ingress实现原理图
04ingress1

组件说明:
ingress controller ingress控制器,实现七层转发的边界路由,调用kubernetes的api动态感知集群中pod变化动态更新配置文件并加载,controller需要不数字kubernetes集群中以实现和pod的通信,一般通过DaemonSets或Deployments来部署,对外暴漏80和443端口,同时如果是以DaemonSets部署的,一般是以hostPort或hostNetwork形式暴露,Deployments的化以NodePort形式暴露,同时多个ingres contorller节点可以通过外部的负载均衡来进行接入
service kubernetes中的四层负载均衡调度机制,ingress借助service的服务发现实现集群中pod的动态感知

总之一句话,ingress通过service的服务发现实现配置的动态更新以实现pod的负载均衡,目前有两大类的ingress controller

type normal type advantages weak point
传统负载均衡 nginx、haproxy 稳定、高性能 动态更新需要reload配置文件
微服务负载均衡/td> istio、envoy、traefik 为微服务服务、动态更新 性能较差

2.nginx ingress依赖安装及部署

nginx ingress controller是实现ingress的具体实现方式,安装它有两种方式:

  • DaemonSets通过hostPort方式暴露443和80端口,可以通过Node的调度将其部署在特定的节点上
  • Deployments通过NodePort的方式实现控制器端口的暴露,借助外部负载均衡实现外部高可用负载均衡

除了安装ingress controller以外,还需要部署Namespace、ServiceAccount、RBAC、Secrets、Custom Resource Definitions等资源

2.1.基础环境准备

git clone https://github.com/nginxinc/kubernetes-ingress.git

tree kubernetes-ingress/deployments
04ingress2

部署namesapce、serviceaccount
cat ns-and-sa.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: nginx-ingress 
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: nginx-ingress 
  namespace: nginx-ingress

kubectl apply -f ns-and-sa.yaml
查看
kubectl get namespaces
04ingress4
kubectl get serviceaccounts -n nginx-ingress

部署secrets
cat default-server-secret.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: default-server-secret
  namespace: nginx-ingress
type: Opaque
data:
  tls.crt: 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
  tls.key: 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

kubectl apply -f default-server-secret.yaml
查看
kubectl get secrets -n nginx-ingress

部署ConfigMap
cat nginx-config.yaml

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: nginx-config
  namespace: nginx-ingress
data:

kubectl apply -f nginx-config.yaml
查看
kubectl get configmaps一样也是查看不到对应的结果,类似前面的secret和serviceaccount

自定义部署虚拟云主机和虚拟云主机路由
cat custom-resource-definitions.yaml

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: virtualservers.k8s.nginx.org
spec:
  group: k8s.nginx.org
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: virtualservers
    singular: virtualserver
    kind: VirtualServer
    shortNames:
    - vs
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: virtualserverroutes.k8s.nginx.org
spec:
  group: k8s.nginx.org
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: virtualserverroutes
    singular: virtualserverroute
    kind: VirtualServerRoute
    shortNames:
    - vsr

kubectl apply -f custom-resource-definitions.yaml
查看
kubectl get custom-resource-definitions.yaml
04ingress5

配置rbac授权
cat rbac.yaml

kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: nginx-ingress
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - services
  - endpoints
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - secrets
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - configmaps
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
  - update
  - create
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - pods
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - events
  verbs:
  - create
  - patch
- apiGroups:
  - extensions
  resources:
  - ingresses
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
  - get
- apiGroups:
  - "extensions"
  resources:
  - ingresses/status
  verbs:
  - update
- apiGroups:
  - k8s.nginx.org
  resources:
  - virtualservers
  - virtualserverroutes
  - globalconfigurations
  - transportservers
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
  - get
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: nginx-ingress
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: nginx-ingress
  namespace: nginx-ingress
roleRef:
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: nginx-ingress
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io

kubectl apply -f rbac.yaml

nginx-ingress安装

以DaemonSets方式来安装
cat nginx-ingress.yaml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  name: nginx-ingress
  namespace: nginx-ingress
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx-ingress
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx-ingress
     #annotations:
       #prometheus.io/scrape: "true"
       #prometheus.io/port: "9113"
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: nginx-ingress
      containers:
      - image: nginx/nginx-ingress:edge
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        name: nginx-ingress
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 80
          hostPort: 80
        - name: https
          containerPort: 443
          hostPort: 443
       #- name: prometheus
         #containerPort: 9113
        securityContext:
          allowPrivilegeEscalation: true
          runAsUser: 101 #nginx
          capabilities:
            drop:
            - ALL
            add:
            - NET_BIND_SERVICE
        env:
        - name: POD_NAMESPACE
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        - name: POD_NAME
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        args:
          - -nginx-configmaps=$(POD_NAMESPACE)/nginx-config
          - -default-server-tls-secret=$(POD_NAMESPACE)/default-server-secret
         #- -v=3 # Enables extensive logging. Useful for troubleshooting.
         #- -report-ingress-status
         #- -external-service=nginx-ingress
         #- -enable-leader-election
         #- -enable-prometheus-metrics
         #- -global-configuration=$(POD_NAMESPACE)/nginx-configuration

查看
kubectl get pods -n nginx-ingress -o wide
04ingress6
理论上应该在三个节点上都有pod的,但这里却只在两个节点上有,目前还没找到原因,后面恢复快照重新部署一边再看看

现在就可以直接访问节点加端口来访问各个节点的ingress了
curl node-2:80

<html>
<head><title>404 Not Found</title></head>
<body>
<center><h1>404 Not Found</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.17.9</center>
</body>
</html>

curl node-3也会出现和上面一样的结果
但是我们需要通过一个统一入口通过负载的方式来实现对ingress的访问,这个时候可以通过lvs或nginx自建负载均衡的方式来实现,如果是云环境,目录service/loadbalancer.yaml可以创建外部负载均实现调度